Sunnis: followers of the sunnah, or custom, of the Prophet Muhammad. They make up greater than 80% of Muslims worldwide.
Shia: followers of the Prophet’s son-in-law, Ali, and his descendants.
Salafists: followers of the al-salaf al-salih (the pious ancestors) who wish to return to what they see as the unique, pure, Islam of the Prophet. Sponsored by Saudi Arabia, they span a spectrum from piety to excessive violence.
Ahmadis: a Muslim sect thought of heretic by many Sunnis for proclaiming its 19th-century founder in India, Mirza Ghulam Ahmed, because the Messiah.
Deobandis: a 19th-century anti-British motion that originated in colonial India and is now probably the most influential pressure of Islam in Britain.
Muslim Brotherhood: a political ideology based in Egypt in 1928 to oppose British rule. It’s now banned in Egypt, Saudi Arabia and the UAE as a terrorist organisation. Its European and American followers reject violence. They’re lively in communal organisations however typically disguise their affiliation.
Milli Görü (Nationwide Imaginative and prescient): a Turkish Islamist motion with ties to the Muslim Brotherhood. Based in 1969, it opposes the secular Turkish republic.
Diyanet Isleri Baskanligi: a department of the Turkish president’s workplace with a workers of 120,000, coping with all spiritual issues for Sunnis of Turkish origin at house and overseas. It acts as the very best spiritual authority in issues of doctrine and apply.
DITIB (Turkish abbreviation for Turkish-Islamic Union for Non secular Affairs): the German arm of the Diyanet, based mostly within the Central Mosque of Cologne.
Muslim World League: a physique based in 1962 to advertise Saudi management of Islam worldwide. It funds the development of mosques, distributes Korans and Islamic literature, organises Islamic lessons and helps the unfold of Salafism.
Jihad: Arabic for wrestle. This could discuss with a person purging of the soul or the pursuit of a “simply” conflict towards heresy. For extremists, that is crucial pillar of Islam.
Sharia: God’s will expressed in legislation. For traditionalists, it’s immutable; for modernisers, ever-changing.